If non-surgical treatments do not ease symptoms or the shoulder joint is severely worn causing parts of the joint to become loose, a procedure called an arthroplasty may be recommended. This is a joint replacement treatment which involves replacing the ball with a synthetic ball and placing a cap for the scapula (known as a glenoid). After surgery passive shoulder exercises will be carried out and involve another person moving the joint. After 3-6 weeks patients are advised to start exercising the joint independently. Exercises and stretches are an important part of recovery and help to increase strength, flexibility and mobility in the joint. The success of surgery is dependent on the state of the rotator cuff muscles before surgery and the patient’s commitment to the exercise regime.
Researchers gave shoulder pain sufferers either one shot of steroids or six PT sessions over three weeks and then monitored their progress throughout the next year. The two treatments worked equally well. On average, both groups saw 50 percent improvement in their pain levels and shoulder functionality. However, almost 40 percent of the injection group required additional shots to ease their pain, and 19 percent wound up needing physical therapy anyway. All of this, plus the fact that there are health risks involved with injections, leads the researchers to side with physical therapy.
The number of players who have admitted using steroids in a confidential survey conducted by the NCAA since the 1980s has dropped from percent in 1989 to percent in 2003.  During the 2003 season, there were over 7,000 drug tests, with just 77 turning up as positive test results.  Scukanec claims that methods were used to get around the drug testing, whether it be avoiding the tests by using the drugs during the off-season, or flushing the drugs out of your system. This was used with a liquid he referred to as the "pink."  He stated: