As would be expected, men experiencing AKI were more likely to have reported several baseline factors known to be related an to increased risk of AKI, including excessive alcohol use, smoking, diabetes, and CVD. In terms of factors related to prostate cancer, metastatic disease, prostatectomy, and chemotherapy were associated with a higher rate of AKI at baseline. The key finding was that ADT use within the previous 90 days was associated with a significantly increased risk of AKI compared with that in men never exposed to ADT (odds ratio [OR] = ; 95%CI, –). When the cohort was segregated by type of ADT received, then the use of LHRH agonists, estrogen, combined androgen blockade, and other combination therapies all significantly increased the risk of AKI. Use of oral antiandrogens and bilateral orchiectomy were associated with an increased risk of AKI, but this was not significant.
The results confirm that the effects of GBE extract on aspects of cognition in asymptomatic volunteers are more pronounced for memory, particularly working memory. They also show that these effects may be dose dependent though not in a linear dose related manner, and that GBE 120 mg produces the most evident effects of the doses examined. Additionally, the results suggest that the cognitive enhancing effects of GBE are more likely to be apparent in individuals aged 50–59 years. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.