Koch's achievements, along with the performances of many other East German female athletes, have long been under suspicion that they were achieved with the aid of performance-enhancing drugs.  These drugs were and remain illegal, but were not detectable at the time. In 1991, German anti-drug activists Brigitte Berendonk and Werner Franke , were able to save several doctoral theses and other documents written by scientists working for the East German drug research programme. The documents list the dosage and timetables for the administration of anabolic steroids to many athletes of the former GDR, with one of them being Marita Koch. According to the sources, Koch did use the anabolic steroid Oral-Turinabol (4-Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone) from 1981 to 1984 with dosages ranging from 530 to 1460 mg/year. 
Clemens was one of the most accomplished pitchers in baseball history when he was accused of doping. Clemens won seven Cy Young awards, an American League MVP award, and two World Series titles, but all of that was called into question after Canseco's 2005 book accused him of using amphetamines, anabolic steroids and human growth hormone during his career, though he was never suspended from the game. He was also named in the 2007 Mitchell Report, although he has consistently and unconditionally denied the allegations that he used steroids, including in testimony to a Congressional committee in 2008. Clemens was later indicted on perjury charges in 2010 and tried in court, but was found not guilty of perjury in 2012. Clemens has claimed that hard work helped him dominate the majors into the latter stages of his career, and not .
The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ),  nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone).  Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone .  Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine.  Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine .